Aeronautics, Defense and Space (1) Aircraft; (2) Helicopters; (3) Space Vehicles and Launchers; (4) Missiles and Missile Defense Systems; and (5) Miscellaneous. In terms of aerospace R&D spending, Europe was ranked second after North America in 2015. The EU-28 has been significantly increasing its expenditures on aerospace R&D since 2008, with a 6% average annual growth rate between 2008-2015. The United States remains by far at the top in terms of global aerospace R&D spending as well as having a high national share in total aerospace research expenditures worldwide. It is followed by China, Japan, France and Germany among other developed countries.